11/23/2021»»Tuesday

Pip Install On Macos

  1. Pip Install On Macos 11
  2. Pip Install On Macos Operating System
Author

Check out my video how to install python on mac os x here - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3cfBcRk5Dg. As of v6.1.0, pip installs dependencies before their dependents, i.e. In “topological order.”. This is the only commitment pip currently makes related to order. While it may be coincidentally true that pip will install things in the order of the install arguments or in the order of the items in a requirements file, this is not a promise. Mar 27, 2021 Still doesn't work. I've never tried to run python on a mac before. Maybe that is the problem I'm really not sure. I wonder if pip needs installing? Ah, ok is that though some app or you're launching IDLE first and then trying to install via pip? I'm using python3 no problem, Mac OS 10.15 (Catalina).

Bob Savage <bobsavage@mac.com>

Pip Install On Macos

Python on a Mac running macOS is in principle very similar to Python onany other Unix platform, but there are a number of additional features such asthe IDE and the Package Manager that are worth pointing out.

5.1. Getting and Installing MacPython¶

macOS since version 10.8 comes with Python 2.7 pre-installed by Apple. If you wish, youare invited to install the most recent version of Python 3 from the Pythonwebsite (https://www.python.org). A current “universal binary” build of Python,which runs natively on the Mac’s new Intel and legacy PPC CPU’s, is availablethere.

What you get after installing is a number of things:

  • A Python3.9 folder in your Applications folder. In hereyou find IDLE, the development environment that is a standard part of officialPython distributions; and PythonLauncher, which handles double-clicking Pythonscripts from the Finder.

  • A framework /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework, which includes thePython executable and libraries. The installer adds this location to your shellpath. To uninstall MacPython, you can simply remove these three things. Asymlink to the Python executable is placed in /usr/local/bin/.

The Apple-provided build of Python is installed in/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework and /usr/bin/python,respectively. You should never modify or delete these, as they areApple-controlled and are used by Apple- or third-party software. Remember thatif you choose to install a newer Python version from python.org, you will havetwo different but functional Python installations on your computer, so it willbe important that your paths and usages are consistent with what you want to do.

IDLE includes a help menu that allows you to access Python documentation. If youare completely new to Python you should start reading the tutorial introductionin that document.

If you are familiar with Python on other Unix platforms you should read thesection on running Python scripts from the Unix shell.

5.1.1. How to run a Python script¶

Your best way to get started with Python on macOS is through the IDLEintegrated development environment, see section The IDE and use the Help menuwhen the IDE is running.

If you want to run Python scripts from the Terminal window command line or fromthe Finder you first need an editor to create your script. macOS comes with anumber of standard Unix command line editors, vim andemacs among them. If you want a more Mac-like editor,BBEdit or TextWrangler from Bare Bones Software (seehttp://www.barebones.com/products/bbedit/index.html) are good choices, as isTextMate (see https://macromates.com/). Other editors includeGvim (http://macvim-dev.github.io/macvim/) and Aquamacs(http://aquamacs.org/).

Pip

To run your script from the Terminal window you must make sure that/usr/local/bin is in your shell search path.

To run your script from the Finder you have two options:

  • Drag it to PythonLauncher

  • Select PythonLauncher as the default application to open yourscript (or any .py script) through the finder Info window and double-click it.PythonLauncher has various preferences to control how your script islaunched. Option-dragging allows you to change these for one invocation, or useits Preferences menu to change things globally.

5.1.2. Running scripts with a GUI¶

With older versions of Python, there is one macOS quirk that you need to beaware of: programs that talk to the Aqua window manager (in other words,anything that has a GUI) need to be run in a special way. Use pythonwinstead of python to start such scripts.

With Python 3.9, you can use either python or pythonw.

5.1.3. Configuration¶

Python on macOS honors all standard Unix environment variables such asPYTHONPATH, but setting these variables for programs started from theFinder is non-standard as the Finder does not read your .profile or.cshrc at startup. You need to create a file~/.MacOSX/environment.plist. See Apple’s Technical Document QA1067 fordetails.

For more information on installation Python packages in MacPython, see sectionInstalling Additional Python Packages.

5.2. The IDE¶

MacPython ships with the standard IDLE development environment. A goodintroduction to using IDLE can be found athttp://www.hashcollision.org/hkn/python/idle_intro/index.html.

5.3. Installing Additional Python Packages¶

There are several methods to install additional Python packages:

  • Packages can be installed via the standard Python distutils mode (pythonsetup.pyinstall).

  • Many packages can also be installed via the setuptools extensionor pip wrapper, see https://pip.pypa.io/.

5.4. GUI Programming on the Mac¶

There are several options for building GUI applications on the Mac with Python.

PyObjC is a Python binding to Apple’s Objective-C/Cocoa framework, which isthe foundation of most modern Mac development. Information on PyObjC isavailable from https://pypi.org/project/pyobjc/.

The standard Python GUI toolkit is tkinter, based on the cross-platformTk toolkit (https://www.tcl.tk). An Aqua-native version of Tk is bundled with OSX by Apple, and the latest version can be downloaded and installed fromhttps://www.activestate.com; it can also be built from source.

wxPython is another popular cross-platform GUI toolkit that runs natively onmacOS. Packages and documentation are available from https://www.wxpython.org.

PyQt is another popular cross-platform GUI toolkit that runs natively onmacOS. More information can be found athttps://riverbankcomputing.com/software/pyqt/intro.

5.5. Distributing Python Applications on the Mac¶

The standard tool for deploying standalone Python applications on the Mac ispy2app. More information on installing and using py2app can be foundat http://undefined.org/python/#py2app.

5.6. Other Resources¶

The MacPython mailing list is an excellent support resource for Python users anddevelopers on the Mac:

Another useful resource is the MacPython wiki:

This guide discusses how to install packages using pip anda virtual environment manager: either venv for Python 3 or virtualenvfor Python 2. These are the lowest-level tools for managing Pythonpackages and are recommended if higher-level tools do not suit your needs.

Note

This doc uses the term package to refer to aDistribution Package which is different from an ImportPackage that which is used to import modules in your Python source code.

Installing pip¶

pip is the reference Python package manager. It’s used to install andupdate packages. You’ll need to make sure you have the latest version of pipinstalled.

Debian and most other distributions include a python-pip package; if youwant to use the Linux distribution-provided versions of pip, seeInstalling pip/setuptools/wheel with Linux Package Managers.

You can also install pip yourself to ensure you have the latest version. It’srecommended to use the system pip to bootstrap a user installation of pip:

Afterwards, you should have the latest version of pip installed in youruser site:

The Python installers for Windows include pip. You can make sure that pip isup-to-date by running:

Afterwards, you should have the latest version of pip:

Installing virtualenv¶

Note

If you are using Python 3.3 or newer, the venv module isthe preferred way to create and manage virtual environments.venv is included in the Python standard library and requires no additional installation.If you are using venv, you may skip this section.

virtualenv is used to manage Python packages for different projects.Using virtualenv allows you to avoid installing Python packages globallywhich could break system tools or other projects. You can install virtualenvusing pip.

Creating a virtual environment¶

venv (for Python 3) and virtualenv (for Python 2) allowyou to manage separate package installations fordifferent projects. They essentially allow you to create a “virtual” isolatedPython installation and install packages into that virtual installation. Whenyou switch projects, you can simply create a new virtual environment and nothave to worry about breaking the packages installed in the other environments.It is always recommended to use a virtual environment while developing Pythonapplications.

To create a virtual environment, go to your project’s directory and runvenv. If you are using Python 2, replace venv with virtualenvin the below commands.

The second argument is the location to create the virtual environment. Generally, youcan just create this in your project and call it env.

venv will create a virtual Python installation in the env folder.

Note

You should exclude your virtual environment directory from your versioncontrol system using .gitignore or similar.

Activating a virtual environment¶

Before you can start installing or using packages in your virtual environment you’llneed to activate it. Activating a virtual environment will put thevirtual environment-specificpython and pip executables into your shell’s PATH.

You can confirm you’re in the virtual environment by checking the location of yourPython interpreter:

Pip Install On Macos 11

It should be in the env directory:

As long as your virtual environment is activated pip will install packages into thatspecific environment and you’ll be able to import and use packages in yourPython application.

Leaving the virtual environment¶

If you want to switch projects or otherwise leave your virtual environment, simply run:

If you want to re-enter the virtual environment just follow the same instructions aboveabout activating a virtual environment. There’s no need to re-create the virtual environment.

Installing packages¶

Now that you’re in your virtual environment you can install packages. Let’s install theRequests library from the Python Package Index (PyPI):

pip should download requests and all of its dependencies and install them:

Installing specific versions¶

pip allows you to specify which version of a package to install usingversion specifiers. For example, to installa specific version of requests:

To install the latest 2.x release of requests:

To install pre-release versions of packages, use the --pre flag:

Installing extras¶

Some packages have optional extras. You can tell pip to install these byspecifying the extra in brackets:

Installing from source¶

pip can install a package directly from source, for example:

Additionally, pip can install packages from source indevelopment mode,meaning that changes to the source directory will immediately affect theinstalled package without needing to re-install:

Installing from version control systems¶

pip can install packages directly from their version control system. Forexample, you can install directly from a git repository:

For more information on supported version control systems and syntax, see pip’sdocumentation on VCS Support.

Installing from local archives¶

If you have a local copy of a Distribution Package’s archive (a zip,wheel, or tar file) you can install it directly with pip:

If you have a directory containing archives of multiple packages, you can tellpip to look for packages there and not to use thePython Package Index (PyPI) at all:

This is useful if you are installing packages on a system with limitedconnectivity or if you want to strictly control the origin of distributionpackages.

Using other package indexes¶

If you want to download packages from a different index than thePython Package Index (PyPI), you can use the --index-url flag:

If you want to allow packages from both the Python Package Index (PyPI)and a separate index, you can use the --extra-index-url flag instead:

Upgrading packages¶

pip can upgrade packages in-place using the --upgrade flag. For example, toinstall the latest version of requests and all of its dependencies:

Using requirements files¶

Instead of installing packages individually, pip allows you to declare alldependencies in a Requirements File. Forexample you could create a requirements.txt file containing:

And tell pip to install all of the packages in this file using the -r flag:

Freezing dependencies¶

Pip can export a list of all installed packages and their versions using thefreeze command:

Which will output a list of package specifiers such as:

Pip Install On Macos Operating System

Pip Install On Macos

This is useful for creating Requirements Files that can re-createthe exact versions of all packages installed in an environment.

Most Viewed Posts